Thursday, 11 October 2012

Research Paper on: IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR


IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ON HUMAN BEHAVIOUR


DEFINITION.
Environment means natural world. Environment is the surrounding in which a person, animal or plant lives or operates. The environment is our life support system it includes everything that we rely on during our lifetimes such as air, metals, soil, water, rock and other living organisms. The natural environment contains all living or non living things that occur naturally on earth.  The study of the interaction between human behavior and our physical surroundings. The presence of other people influences us to study crowding. Interest broadened to include the variety of negative behavior effects caused by environmental variables such as noise, heat and air pollution. Increasingly concentrated on how human behavior negatively impacts the environment and on to change this behavior. A serious threat to human beings and their environment is the continues and accelerating over exploitation and destruction of natural resources.
   INTRODUCTION                                                                                            
Environmental degradation may be defined as the deterioration of the environment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil: the destruction of eco system and the extinction of wild life. Environmental degradation has occurred due to the recent activities in the field of socio-economic, institute and technology. Environmental changes are depend on many factors including economic growth, population growth, urbanization, intensification of agriculture, rising energies use and transportation. Poverty still remains a problem at the root of several environmental problems to create awareness among the people about the ill effects of environmental pollution.
 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
In discussing the effect on health, we point out that initial focus centered on physical threat throughout human history; people have been threatening by earthquake and natural disasters. Recent times, technological advancement have brought  new potential dangers which are regularly exposed to health related messages about environmental threat such as; increased cancer risk is caused by living or working near power line talking on cellular telephone. Environmental threats are stressful; people must find ways to cope. In effected response is a tribute environmental problems to the evil motives of individual farms or of government agencies and then to resort to violence against individuals associate with this organization. The most adopted approach is to take step to alert the behavior of individuals.
 FACTORS:

Major factors that influence social behavior consist of ecological variable the direct and indirect influence physical environment.
1. Noisy environment.
2. Temperature.
3. Air.
4. Atmosphere.
NOISY ENVIRONMENT: UNPLEASANT AND UNPREDICTABLE
Noisy environment is defined as UN wanted sound, in other words: sounds that create a negative affective response. Loudness is one of the major reasons that a given sound is evocated as unpleasant. We tend to react negatively to loudness, whether it is natural occurrence (such as a loud clap of thunder) or artificial (such as jet taking off). Unpredictability is the other major reason for a negative response to sound. We can adapt more easily to a regular, predictable sound, such as birds that start singing each morning at sun rise. Unexpected and
Unpredictable sounds. The negative effects of unpredictable noise on performance tasks including reading comprehension and solving. The negative effects of noise are reduce when individuals pensive that may have control over it. Loud unpredictable noise generates great deals of negative effects, including hunger and it is a measure source of environmental stress. Noise interferes with behavior in daily life. Daily exposure to the sounds of a by air causes adults to be less able to find items in a super market, to have memory loss, and even to be more likely to drop things. Still any one of this response to heat (as well as their combine effects) can increase the like hood of negative interpersonal responses. In a study of auto mobile drive at any intersection in phoenix, Arizona, the higher the temperature, the more the drivers angrily honked their horns if the cars is in the front of them remain stationary after the light turned green. Some negative to heat involve more harmful interpersonal behavior. Temperature level has also been linked to more serious inter personal aggression. Not only does a heat affect aggressive crime it also increases the aggressiveness of police officers towards suspected offenders.
THE EFFECTS OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR ON THE ENVIRONMENT:
Environmental psychology in terms of the interactions between our behavior and physical surroundings. It really is a two way street, with the environment affecting our actions and our actions affecting the environment. Almost everything that humans do has a small  but cumulative on the world around us whenever someone becomes a parent drives a car, uses hair spray, buys a product, send garbage to a land fill, lights a fire, or plants a tree, the environment is affected. More serious are the health threat caused by as an environmental stressor hearing loss, hypertension.
THE NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF BREATHING POLLUTED AIR.
Air quality was expressed on the global environment. Pollution remains problem, on the job, more than half of all factory workers are exposed to hazardous polluted air. Polluted air is one of several factors in the environment that have a negative effect on humans. Impure air causes negative emotional reactions, increasing various health risks, and is responsible for thousands of death annually. Particles in the air we breathe the victims are primarily children with respiratory illness, individual of all ages have asthma, and elderly citizens have upper respiratory illness. Most of the partials are released in to the air by industrial plants a smaller proportion originate in the exhaust of vehicles powered by diesel engines. In countries that have less restrictive environmental laws
ELECTRICAL IONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE:
Natural environmental phenomena can also influence behavior lighting, strong winds and other atmospheric disturbances cause air molecules to spill into positively and negatively charged particles called ions. The result is atmospheric electricity affects which social behavior. Positive ions are generated by hot, dry wind blowing from mountain ranges down across the plane below. As the positive ions level raises the frequency of suicides traffic accidents, industrial accidents and several types of crime also increase. The influence of positive verse negative effect on behavior and environmental factors such as noise, high temperature, bad smelling, air and positive ions leads to negative behavior in part because they create negative effects. While a quiet atmosphere comparable temperature, fragrant smells and negative ions arouse positive affects and have benefited behavior effect. Numerous other environmental factors such as room lighting also influence our behavior of their effect on emotions.
 HIGH TEMPERATURE: NEGATIVE AFFECTS AND NEGATIVE INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOR:
The temperature rises to appoint where it is uncomfortably hot, people interact with one another in less positive ways. Note that discomfort is not simply a matter of air temperature it is also affected by humidity and by air movement. Engaged in aerobic exercise under comfortable, warm or hot conditions hot temperature resulted in hostile affect, hostile thought and physiological arousal.
 AFFECTING ENVIRONMENTAL DEGARADATION:
 DESTRUCTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES    
Agriculture development and farming activities contribute, to soil erosions, land salivation and loss of nutrients. The green revolution and over exploitation of land and water resources, use of fertilizers and pesticides have increased many causes in the degradation of land and water.
DISEASES CAUSED BY ENVIRONMENTAL FACTOR:
Environmental diseases are diseases that are not genetic but are caused, aided or triggered by the environment. They are basically carried in the water, soil, air and food, which can therefore affect almost every living organism. According to the world health organization, it has been reported that 25 million adults and children die annually of this factor which, if taking care of can be prevented to a very large extent. Also the frequency of the four behaviors was measured. The taxonomy has content, discriminate, predictive and homological validity and satisfactory. The most internalize of the new norm constructed, intrigrated is most strongly correlate with measured personal and moral norms. The pattern of collation between norms constricted and between norms and behavior worry between behaviors hence. Respondent seem to apply different norms for different environmentally response behavior. Environmental degradation comes from economic activity that consumer expenditure account for most gross domestic product and that therefore changing consumer behavior can go a long way towards reducing environmental degradation, there are several strategies available for changing environmentally significant consumer behavior.
 DISEASES THAT CAUSE DEATH, ILLNESS AND DISABILITY DUE TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ARE GIVEN BELOW:
 1. Diarrhea mainly cause due to unsafe drinking water, poor sanitation and hygiene.
2. Lower respiratory infections are caused due to indoors and out door air pollution.
3. Malaria a dreadful disease cause due to poor water resources, housing and land use management.
4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by a gradual loss of lung function mainly due to workplace exposures to toxic dusts and fumes.
5. overcrowding in public is also one of the factors that boost infections.
6. Cardiovascular disorders are mainly caused by factors such as high cholesterol level, smoking, obesity, stress, diabetes, genetics and lack of exercise.
7. Cancer is also considered environmental disease, because most of the cancers are caused by the environment.
8. Mental illness and stress are also diseases that are triggered by the environment we live in stress can sometimes leads to depression and if no help is provided at the time can lead to suicide.
 HUMAN BEHAVIOR IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT:
 People behave the way that they do by choice but in reality the environment play a critical role. Something as simple as changes in temperature and as extreme as times of war can have a profound.
 EFFECTS ON BEHAVIOR:
The environment in relation to human beings is the natural and man-made physical surrounding the instructions and the opinions and ideas that surround individual .obviously the environment is very important to people. It affects the way people live, down to the smallest .Environment does not control the choice man makes with regard to his goal, but it limits the possibilities open to him. Yet human behavior occupies center stage for virtually every major environmental problem comforting human kind. On the one hand, both personal subcritical decision and actions are the root cause of most ecological problem and on the other environmental quality can affect psychological health and functioning. The focus of this entry is on the impact on the environmental quality, specifically crowding, noise pollution upon psychological functioning. The construct of psychological stress has proven useful for understanding how the physical environment can affect human well being. Psychological stress refers to behavioral and physiological reactions to environmental demands that exceed or tax the adaptive capacities of the organisms. These demands are termed stressors. Adaptive capacities of the organisms encompass genetic predispositions, cognitive behavioral coping stages and social characteristics that can alert the balance environmental demands and individual capacity.
 ECO-PSYCHOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEM ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION:
One of the necessary corner stone’s of Eco-psychology and environmental psychology is a contribution to understanding and solving environmental problems. If these fields are to have any lasting benefit, they must help us to solve the very real problems of environmental degradation and devastation. These solutions must come on broad, cultural, bioregional, even global levels, as well as on individuals and local levels. Some of the ways environmental psychology and eco-psychology can respond to environmental problems and they can understand and support sustainable effective action.
 PSYCHOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS:
 The very real and well documented environmental problems we face, both locally and global, also have psychological consequences.
We can identify three categories of environmental
 NATURAL DISASTER:
(a) Usually unpredictable, uncontrollable, destructive, acute, but they are expectable. While we cannot predict the next Tsunami, forest fire, or tornado, they tend to have a recognizable low point with natural disaster.
(b) Factors in psychological effect of natural disaster include the events duration, intensity, low point. Equally important are a variety of personal and social coping skill, including personality style, adoptive skills and social support.
(c) Psychological effects short term stress is common. Generally chronic stress is rear. Often, increase in cooperation and social bonding.
(d) Natural disasters are part of natural order. Natural disasters are easier to intricate because they are part of natural order.
  TECHNOLOGICAL CATASTROPHES:
(a) Duration is variable. There may be long term effects, there is often no clear low point, and victims have little control. Ere may be a lack of visible destruction and no closer since the low term effects are unknown and unknown able. Most people have low familiarities with these, and there is low predictability.
(b) Toxic exposure leads to both neuropsychological effects and stress effects. The belief in exposure leads to stress in some cases, their low silence may lead to a denial. 
(c) Psychological effects compare to natural disasters, these effects are more severe, complex, longer-lasting and likely to be chronic. They often increase interpersonal conflict.
(d) Since they are not part of natural order, hypothesis that they increase existential insecurity.
CHRONIC LONG-TERM ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION:
Psychic numbing denial. (The most common and visible effects)
(a)     Anxiety
(b)     Helplessness, depression.
(c)     Alienation, the sense of not belonging.
(d)     Child development.
They may  also  a positive effects of recognizing and dealing with environmental destruction it may be a call to awareness and service, existential authenticity, responsibility.
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS IN ENVIRONMENTAL ACTION AND DECISION MAKING:
Economists and political scientists tend to use rational decision making models. Psychology points to a number of non rational factors.
(1)     Levels of morals judgment, this work helps to understand the factors which influence judgments about environmental action.
(2)     Compliance, groupthink, risk shift phenomenon. This is a large body of showing some of the social influence on action.
(3)     Cognitive dissonance: behavior leads to attitude, justification way of changing behavior changing attitude, deny. Ironically, sometimes behaviors can lead to shift in attitude and not the other way around. If one acts in an environmentally responsible way direction.
(4)     Addiction model of overconsumption. Environmentally destructive behaviours have some hallmarks of addiction behaviors. This paper may provide suggestion for promoting more environmentally responsible behaviors.
(5)     Social traps. Tragedy of the commons. This describes individual behavior when competing for valued but limited resources. One person’s destructive behavior has little impact, but many people causes disaster. There is a short term personal benefit but a long-term collective loss.
 DATA EXPLANATION:
 Death Rate of Diseases Caused by Environmental Factors
Diseases that cause the largest number of deaths annually due to environmental factors are as follow:
·         Cardiovascular diseases 2.6 million.
·         Diarrhea 1.7 million.
·         Lower respiratory infections 1.5 million.
·         Cancers 1.4 million.
·         Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease 1.3 million.
·         Road accidents 470,000.
·         Unintentional injuries 400,000 .

 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMANDATION

 Without favorable environment no progress can be made; but impact of environment also react as a catalyst of change for human behavior because sometime the degradation of environment  leads towards the stimulation of endocrine secretion which cause a major factor in  the change of human behavior .
In whole the research, it is clear that all factors of environmental degradation may be reduced through
1   Framing the new laws on environmental degradation.
2   Environment friend policy.
3   Controlling all the ways and means of noise, air, soil and water pollution.
4   Through growing more and more trees.
5   By adapting the proper sanitation policy.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

First of all, I would like to say Alhamodulha, for giving me strength and health to this paper work until it. This dissertation would not have been possible without the guidance and support of Sir Syed Aijaz Ali Shah from initial to the final level that enabled me to develop an understanding of subject. Lastly, I offer my regards to Sir Tofique Ahmed and who encouraged me during the completion of this work.
  
SUGGESTIONS:

1.       Firstly imputed awareness to masses about environment.
2.       On the basis of priority to promote the culture of forestation.
3.       The hazardous effects of fossil fuel should be introduced at school, college, and university as well as community level.
4.        The environment related laws should be followed strictly.
REFERENCES

1. Themes and variations (Brief version 4th edition) by Wayne Weiten.

              2. Environmental Psychology by Paul A.Bell.
               3. Annual Review of Neuroscience Vol: 21:1-24.
              4. Articles About Environmental Degradation on human behavior.
              5. Psychology Public Health Article Date 17.feb.2011.
              6.  Faraone SV, Perlis RH, Doyle AE , Smoller JW , Goralnick JJ ,Holmgren MA , Sklar P ,Molecular genetics biological 2005.